Dental dictionary



Alpha Bio Implants are made of high quality and durable materials. This is a lifelong solution for temporary or permanent dentures. These implants are made by a very complex procedure, enabling them to properly integrate into jaw bone. This ossification is commonly referred as osseanintegration. Our dentists use both Alpha Bio and Nobel Biocare implants, depending on what is needed during treatment.

Some symptoms may appear after an operation or a treatment that are not unusual. For example: swollen cheek, bleeding gums, etc.)


Tissue removal from a living person for medical examination.

By tooth bridge it is possible to replace one or several missing teeth by relying on the adjacent teeth (pillar teeth), one on each side. The bridge consists of welded crowns. This is a final restoration procedure once it has been fixed, it can no longer be removed. When fixing the bridge, the pillar teeth are also crowned. Therefore, the crown is recommended only if the adjacent teeth are well-made or have major restoration or root canal treatment.

Why should we replace a missing tooth?

  • To cover a non-aesthetic gap.
  • To improve the patient’s chewing and speaking skills.
  • To not allow other teeth to support the chewing load and weaken them over time.
  • To not allow other teeth to move or tilt, creating gum problems.
  • Unbalanced chewing can lead to serious problems, in the worst case, temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD).
  • To protect the other teeth from loosening or displacement, which can prevent gingular problems.
  • To prevent serious problems caused by unbalanced chewing, which in worst case can lead to TMD, ie, cancers of the duodenum dysfunction.

Bridge types

In the case of a classic bridge, a crown is placed on the two halves on both sides of adjacent tooth. The part, which connects them, replaces the missing tooth, is called pontic.

The structure of the butterfly bridge deviates from the traditional bridge, so that it is supported by the pontic ailerons on the adjacent teeth. This is a less durable solution than the classic bridge.

Dental interventions that improve bone tissue in the planned dental implant, if it is not appropriate to absorb the tooth implant.

Bruxism is an involuntary jaw movement that covers the teeth of the throat or clenching. Usually it occurs during sleep, but many people may also wake their teeth. The cause of its development is often marked by anxiety and stress, but if the patient has some occult disorder, he may also trigger it. Tightening teeth is usually a faint phenomenon, while toothbrushing can have a serious sound effect.

However, Bruxism has not only the disadvantage of being loud. Chirping causes the tooth enamel over time, which will make the tooth more vulnerable and breaks more easily. In addition, it can lead to various canine, nerve and jaw joints. Using a bite lift can be helpful to help with this disease, but it is advisable to consult a competent dentist for proper treatment.


This is a computer-controlled imaging method used to make precise plans and models.

Decay or cavity in other words. They appear on the surface of the tooth as bacteria is staying there for longer and hard tissues of the tooth are attenuating. It can lead to the inflammation of the pulp and to more severe oral health issues. It has to be treated as soon as possible to avoid serious complications.

Veneers can be a great solution to discolored teeth, chipped teeth or moderate defects in site and position of the tooth. It is about 0.5 mm and needs to be fixed on the tooth precisely to result perfect aesthetics.

The position of the teeth when they are in contact while the mouth is closed and upper teeth lap over lower teeth.


Dental crown is a tooth prosthetic device that is used to restore a damaged tooth. It’s like a hat that covers and protects your teeth.

Metal ceramic crown: its foundation is reinforced with metal, which is engraved with an aesthetic ceramic layer.

Ceramic crown: no metal included. It consists of high-tolerance materials such as zirconium or aluminum. It has aesthetic value.

The tooth implant is an artificial tooth root that is directly operated into the jaw bone and is intended to hold a denture (denture, tooth bridge, etc.). Dental implantation has an oral surgery section (when the implant is inserted into the bone) and has a prosthetic part (the crown insertion). The implant is perfectly embedded into the bone, called “osseointegration”.

Dental impression is an imprint, it is needed if dentures or orthodontic is needed to the patient.

In a dental laboratory experienced dental technicians work to create prosthetic devices.

Dental mold is made from tooth mold.

Dental occlusion shows how the upper teeth (maxillary teeth) align with the lower teeth (mandibular teeth). In a static occlusion, the position of the teeth is examined, when lower jaw does not move. In this case, the teeth are at one point. Dynamic occlusion examines how the teeth are in contact with the lower jaw movement. In this case, the contact of the teeth can be described with a line.

The complete, removable prosthesis is a tooth replacement device, simply called: denture. It is complete because it replaces all the tooth and serves to replace the lower or upper teeth. It can be removed as it can be removed for daily maintenance, cleaning or simply during night.


The tooth bridge can replace one or more missing teeth. It consists of pillars and an intermediate element. It is permanently fixed to the adjacent teeth and is made in the form, size and color as if it were the patient’s own tooth. For example of a tooth bridge: the tooth bridge will consist of 3 elements. Two pillar elements on each side of the gap and an intermediate element that covers the dental problem.


Tooth filling is a method for restoring a tooth in both functionality and appearance of a tooth. Before filling, the dentist removes tooth-decay from the crown, cleanses the resulting hollow and then buries it with filler.

4 incisors teeth and 2 canines, they are visible during speaking. These teeth are used for tearing.


Larger space in between two teeth.

The gum is the part of the buccal mucosa that ensures the role of a waterproof sleeve around each tooth. It also covers the alveolar bone. It is the visible part of the periodontium.


The presence of an increased amount of bloodflow in a part or organ caused by temperature rise, physical impact or chemicals like histamine.


It helps reducing pain after oral surgery.

In an other name putty, it is used to realize a dental impression when we put it in a tray and push it on the teeth of the patient. The paste hardens in a few minutes and can serve as a sample of the dentition.

Intermediate area is the intersecting between tooth. The condition of these areas greatly influences the appearance and spread of oral biofilm (bacterial deposits), as these small areas are difficult to reach even when the teeth are normally positioned relative close to each other.


Maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) jaws.


It is important to numb an area of the body to prevent pain during surgery.

It is some kind of a temporary crown that is used to replace teeth while the permanent, final prosthesis is ready to be fixed in the mouth. It is almost as durable as the permanent denture.

Different shades of the same object under different type of lights.


In other words, upper jawbone. It is divided into two parts, joining each other in the middle of the facial median line.

As a physical barrier, it helps holding at place the grafting material, so it gives time to the bone cells to regenerate. It maintains space and in the same time it increases therapeutic safety. Helps in tissue regeneration and cellular impermeability, it is also biocompatible.

Metal ceramic crown is made of a metal shell, which is coated with a ceramic layer in the shape of the patient’s own tooth. Thus, the prosthesis becomes aesthetic and durable due to the metal frame and it also gives natural look.

In most of the cases, occlusion may change because of tooth loss as the distance in between the two opposite jaws is shortening at some points where the tooth is missing, it might affect the position of other teeth compared to each other.

These teeth are used for grinding and chewing, they have 3 roots in general and can be found at the back of each jaw, on both sides. We can have different number of molars, depending on the existence of wisdom teeth, there can be only 8 or up to 12.

The teeth cover each other partially when there is not enough place for them. This congestion due to the lack of space practically occurs almost everywhere at different levels. A popular term for this is if man has ” curves teeth”, but often it has more to do than the teeth are not aligned.


Teeth that are next to each other at the same jaw. Adjacent teeth.

This dental implant brand is one of the highest quality in the market. As an artificial tooth root, it helps replacing missing teeth by giving a support to the final tooth restorations, such as bridges and crowns. It comes with a lifetime guarantee on the material.


The contact in between the teeth of the upper and lower jaws during occlusion and mastication.

Upper and lower incisors are not closing when the mouth itself is closed.

Oral surgery is a specialty of dentistry and either general surgery. All complicated medical intervention in the mouth requires involving experienced oral surgeons to realize the operation. Oral surgeons, as highly qualified and specialized dentists, are having as tasks the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the tissues of the mouth and jawbones.

Orthodontic Retention is a dental tool that fits the shape of the teeth. It is made of dental impression and looks like a mouthguard. Different types of rails are distinguished: the occlusal rail improves the jaw and joints (TMJ) and the involuntary jaw muscle tension. They also use a rail against bruxism. They use dental prostheses for orthodontic purposes, this is a milder solution, making the teeth subtle to move from a position. The advantage of this kind of rail is that it is less visible and easier to clean and maintain than traditional dental braces.

Overbite is the overlap of the upper incisors over the lower incisors. This malocclusion can be treated with the using of dental braces. Often linked to an anteroposterior gap of the dental arches, it can take various forms.

In case of a lost adjacent tooth, the tooth has to bear more load while chewing as it replaces somehow the role of the missing tooth as well. The overloaded tooth can become sensitive, painful and/or stir.


Facial paralysis can be occurred after multiple interventions when the nerves are being touched, or even after a simple local anesthesia. In most of the cases it is temporary after an oral surgery intervention, in more severe cases it must be treated to get back the full functionality of the face.

It serves to replace one or more teeth for a better speaking, chewing or aesthetics.

This is how we call the inflammation in the gums that surround teeth. It might lead to the recession of the gum that could even result tooth loss. It is a quite common disease therefore we recommend you to go for regular dental check-ups to discover and start treating the gums on time. When the inflammation is severe, even jawbone can be affected, Proper dental hygiene, like brushing and flossing, is highly important to prevent gum problems.

Set of periodontal tissues that surround and support the teeth. It consists of the following parts:

  • the bones of the lower (mandibular) or upper (maxillary) jaw teeth
  • alveodental ligament
  • gingival
  • the root of the tooth root, as well as nerves and blood vessels.

example by orthodontics.

Pillar teeth are permanently attached to the dental implant. It can function as a holding element of bridges or overdentures and replacing itself a missing tooth, as well.

The inside of the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels.


The teeth are being numbered upon their position in the mouth. We distinguish upper/right, upper/left, lower/right and lower/left parts of the mouth and in each quadrant we give a number to the teeth from 1 to 8. The two digits number contains both the number of the quadrant and the position of the tooth within.


The capacity of the material to get back its original shape and size after deformation.

This kind of treatment can help saving damaged or infected teeth from extraction by preserving it as a devitalized root as a base for future crown for example.


It is very similar to the inlay/onlay, replacing one part of the tooth. Its material can be metal, ceramic or other kind of synthetic resins.

The sinus augmentation bone graft is used to raise the bowel and reach the desired bone height to be able for tooth implant. Optionally, this may take 2 months after a tooth extraction.

The smile line is the course of the upper lip on the edge of laughter. It has different types:

  • Low smile line (20% of the population) – less than 70% is seen from the anterior teeth and gums are not visible while smiling.
  • Average smile line (70% of the population) – we see 75-100% of the teeth when smiling, along with one small part of the gums in between teeth
  • High or gingival smile (10% of the population) – a large part of the gums is visible while smiling


Pathological case when one or more teeth are missing from the mouth of an adult. Loss of a tooth is also a kind of teeth missing.

Generally, teeth might be colored by coffee, tea, cola or tobacco. Some antibiotics can color children’s growing teeth black. Due to aging, the dentin under the tooth enamel may slowly become discolored. If the injury is caused by an accident, the nerve may die slowly, and the ditch will be blackened. In general, it is also true that the tooth will discolor after a root treatment.

Tooth enamel is the outer part of the tooth crown. It covers enamel, enamel is the toughest part of the human body and contains mostly minerals. The enamel, the dentine, the cementum and the dental pulp together is one of the four basic tissues, that is an ingredient of tooth.

Extraction of one or more tooth, that are used to correct a dental overcrowding or to disrupt the lower and upper teeth.

Tooth root is a part of the tooth. It is embedded in the faveolus, connecting to the lower or upper jaw. It holds the crown of the tooth, ends in an apex.

A tooth might have one or more roots. The number of roots is generally upto a given type of teeth, but some variations exist.

Single root teeth: prone teeth, canines

Two rooted teeth: premolars

Three roots: molars

The place where the roots disintegrate is called furcation.

Unlike the crown, the roots are not enamel, but are protected by much finer cementum. Therefore, sensitivity is a common phenomenon when the tooth root becomes uncovered. This may occur due to gum disease or gingivitis, for example due to too strong toothbrushing. The number of teeth roots also determines the method of tooth extraction.

This orthodontic device consists of transparent shells that completely cover the teeth. Since this tool can be removed, we recommend it primarily for conscientious patients who wear as much as possible. This method works with 90% efficacy –  if the patient wears a lot but can not always be used. Please consult your orthodontic specialist.

Impression trays are served to be filled with putty and to be placed into the mouth of the patient so when it hardens and reflects the inside of the mouth. It is used before interventions, such as orthodontics treatment, dental implantation or different types of tooth restoration.


Wisdom tooth is the third final molar, which grows first between the ages of 16 and 21. It is referred with wisdom mark, because it represents a step to the adulthood.

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